Prostatitis is an inflammation and swelling of the prostate tissue (prostate). And 50% of men aged 18-50 face such a disappointing diagnosis.
The disease usually develops slowly, without obvious signs and has been bringing a minimum of concern to its owner for many years.
The man has been living with prostatitis for years, does not consult a doctor and allows the disease to become chronic with serious complications.
When the patient arrives at the clinic, it is already too late: prostatitis becomes malignant or leads to infertility. So, what are the first signs of the disease and how to deal with it?
Prostate diseases in men have characteristic symptoms and require urgent treatment. But the disease is insidious. Sometimes his signs do not appear for years.
Meanwhile, the inflammatory process develops slowly, affecting more and more new tissues and leading to impotence and infertility.
In order not to start the disease, a man should pay attention to the characteristic signs that accompany any type of prostatitis:
- pain and burning sensation in the perineum, lower abdomen, scrotum and in the area where the prostate is located;
- increased urination, weak current, appearance of pus from the urethra in the form of white fibers or flakes;
- rapid or, conversely, prolonged ejaculation (sometimes painful), long nocturnal erections, sexual dysfunction, decreased sex drive;
- deterioration of sperm quality, change in its quantity;
- fatigue and irritability, general weakness.
Symptoms of the disease may appear together or manifest separately; sometimes they are so subtle that they are attributed to fatigue or lack of sleep. If a man notices at least one of the above symptoms, he must see a doctor.
It should not be assumed that prostate gland problems are people who have crossed the 30th birthday threshold. Prostatitis can occur in any sexually mature man, and now people between the ages of 18 and 20 are getting sick more and more often.
Causes of disease
Prostatitis in men is caused by various reasons:
- long abstinence from sexual life, stagnation and poor blood circulation in the organs of the genitourinary system;
- injuries, hypothermia, age-related changes;
- genital infections, viruses, bacteria.
Combined with the factors that create a favorable situation for damage to the body, these causes cause inflammation of the prostate.
- promiscuous or irregular sex life, artificial prolongation or termination of sexual intercourse;
- sedentary, sedentary lifestyle;
- past infections, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system;
- extra pounds;
- decreased immunity, susceptibility to allergies, hormonal disorders;
- frequent hypothermia;
- untimely bladder emptying and irregular bowel emptying;
- stress and emotional overload;
- excessive physical activity or lifting heavy objects;
- smoking and alcoholism;
- lack of vitamins, micro and macro elements.
If a person's body is affected by at least one of the above factors, it is very likely that he will develop prostatitis. In this case, it is advisable to undergo a preventive examination every six months.
Prostatitis can take many forms and be caused by a variety of reasons. Depending on it, it is divided into different types.
A large number of types of prostatitis lead to the fact that individual treatment should be prescribed in each case. You should not listen to the advice of friends and their criticism about drugs. What works in one case will be completely ineffective in another.
It develops due to the effect on the prostate tissue of pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate from the urethra or bladder and lead to inflammation.
Sometimes acute prostatitis occurs after chronic infectious diseases - sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, caries - or as a result of hormonal disorders.
Signs of acute prostatitis are intensely manifested:
- constant weakness, fatigue, malaise;
- slight rise in temperature;
- pain in the groin, anus, which sometimes spreads to the back, lower back and legs;
- frequent urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, weak pressure, tingling, urinary retention;
- lack of erection, impaired ejaculation;
- purulent discharge from the urinary tract.
Acute prostatitis is dangerous because the inflammation spreads quickly, affecting nearby organs. Sometimes this leads to extensive abscess of adjacent tissues and vascular thrombosis.
Usually the treatment is not carried out at home, but in a hospital. If the therapy was correct, the acute prostatitis was completely cured.
If the treatment turns out to be untimely or insufficient, the disease becomes chronic.
It becomes a consequence of untreated acute infectious prostatitis (bacterial form) or results from trauma, hypothermia (abacterial form).
The symptoms of chronic prostatitis during the period of remission are almost not manifested.
One can celebrate:
- discomfort or mild pain in the groin;
- increased urination, weakening of the current;
- constant weakness, apathy;
- decreased sex drive.
How does chronic prostatitis manifest during exacerbation?
It is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of the acute condition. Chronic prostatitis is characterized by a wave-like wave: after the worsening, there will certainly be a period of remission.
Men prefer to wait for the acute period and forget about the disease for several months. Few go to the doctor.
Infectious prostatitis is caused by damage to the prostate tissue by glands, viruses, bacteria or fungi.
The following types of infectious prostatitis are distinguished by the type of pathogenic microorganisms:
- bacterial (intestinal or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus, streptococcus);
- viral (herpes virus, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus);
- mycoplasma (mycoplasma);
- Trichomonas (Trichomonas);
- gonorrhea (gonococcus);
- chlamydial (chlamydia);
- tuberculous (Koch's bacillus);
- fungal (Candida fungus);
The symptoms of infectious prostatitis repeat the symptoms of the acute form of the disease.
If left untreated, the disease leads to a purulent process that spreads rapidly to all nearby organs. Such a condition, which endangers the patient's life, becomes an indication for surgical intervention.
It is caused by stones in the prostate. This form is found in older men who have refused treatment for a chronic illness.
The symptoms of calculous prostatitis are similar to the symptoms of chronic disease, but are sometimes supplemented by specific signs:
- low back and lower back pain that gets worse after walking, prolonged sitting, or having sex;
- the presence of blood in the semen.
It is most often found during an ultrasound examination.
It occurs due to stagnation of prostate secretion or blood in the veins that permeate this organ. Congestion is the result of an irregular sex life, wearing tight underwear, physical inactivity or alcohol abuse.
The symptoms in this form of the disease are mild, reminiscent of the signs of chronic prostatitis.
Each type of prostatitis has its consequences for the body.
For example, acute prostatitis that is not treated in time becomes chronic or leads to the following complications:
- purulent inflammation of the prostate;
- prostate swelling;
- acute urinary retention.
Usually such consequences occur rarely, because acute prostatitis is clearly manifested, and the man goes to the doctor.
Chronic prostatitis, which is not so obvious and develops over time, can cause many more problems.
Complications of chronic prostatitis and its consequences for men's health:
- prostate tissue sclerosis;
- cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- prostate abscess;
- vesiculitis, epididymitis;
- calculous formations in the bladder and prostate;
- renal failure;
- adenoma and prostate cancer.
With advanced chronic prostatitis, many pathological changes are irreversible. For example, problems with urination and sexual dysfunction will no longer be eliminated by simply treating prostatitis.
If characteristic symptoms appear, the man must visit a urologist or andrologist. The diagnosis of "acute prostatitis" is made by the doctor on the basis of a survey, examination of the patient, digital rectal examination and analysis of prostate secretion.
Usually these studies do not cause discomfort, but during exacerbations they can cause painful sensations.
The study of prostate secretion reveals the nature of the disease - bacterial or abacterial. With the bacterial origin of prostatitis, the secretion is also being investigated for resistance to antibacterial drugs.
Chronic inflammation is harder to detect.
A number of laboratory and hardware techniques are used for this:
- bacteriological seeding of prostate and urine secretions to determine infection;
- biochemical analysis of venous blood to determine the levels of ESR, PSA and leukocytes;
- analysis of urethral discharge;
- prostate biopsy;
- Ultrasound (through the abdominal wall) and TRUS (through the rectum);
- MRI and CT scan of the damaged organ;
- urodynamic research;
- X-ray examination.
Why can't the diagnosis be made only on the basis of clinical manifestations of prostatitis?
The fact is that the doctor must identify not only the presence of the disease, but also its cause, in order to choose an effective treatment.
If acute prostatitis can be eliminated in one course of therapy, then chronic prostatitis is treated much longer. Sometimes the patient becomes a regular visitor to the urology office. The more correctly the treatment is chosen and the more accurately the patient adheres to the doctor's recommendation, the longer the remission period will be.
How to treat prostatitis?
Treatment of prostatitis is a lengthy process that lasts at least 1. 5 months and involves a whole range of procedures.
The key to successful therapy is a timely visit to the clinic, high professionalism of the doctor, accurate diagnosis and strict adherence to the patient's recommendations by experts.
Prostatitis is prescribed a complex treatment that includes taking anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics in the exacerbation phase and physiotherapy and massage in the remission phase. These methods alone will not have the desired effect.
Drug therapy lasts 3-4 weeks and includes the following groups of drugs:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain and inflammation;
- antibacterial drugs (fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines) for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis and diseases caused by hypothermia;
- immunomodulators, vitamin and mineral complexes to stimulate the body's defenses;
- hormonal drugs to eliminate hormonal imbalance and stagnation of prostate secretion in its tissues;
- muscle relaxants and alpha-blockers for muscle relaxation (remove prostate inflammation, relieve urethral and bladder spasms, facilitate the process of urination).
Particularly effective are medications that are available in the form of rectal suppositories.
They bring the active substance to the prostate tissue faster than tablets and injections and have a better healing effect.
Acute prostatitis is treated with medication until the disease enters a remission phase. In advanced cases, the patient is sent to the hospital and up to 5 groups of antibiotics are prescribed at the same time.
Physiotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment and is used only in combination with medications.
It is impossible to treat the prostate with physiotherapy devices until the symptoms of worsening are completely eliminated.
Types of physiotherapy:
- electrical stimulation;
- laser treatment;
- transrectal magnetotherapy;
- phonophoresis and phototherapy;
- prostate massage.
Physiotherapy gives the best results for chronic and congestive prostatitis.
But with infectious and calculous diseases, you should abandon massage - it will only help the infection to spread faster to nearby organs or start stones.
Surgical treatment can be radical (removal of the prostate) or gentle (removal of part of the prostate or injection to reduce it).
Indications for surgery:
- urethral narrowing, penile phimosis, and acute urinary retention;
- purulent process in prostate tissues and in nearby organs;
- stagnation of prostate secretion in its cavity due to improper functioning of seminal vesicles;
- stones in the prostate cavity;
- prostate adenoma or sclerotic changes in its tissues.
What is prostate adenoma in men? This is a benign mass that is most often treated with surgical methods. It is a consequence of chronic prostatitis and occurs in men after the age of 50.
This type of treatment is not the best option because it focuses on the effect of the disease rather than its cause.
In addition, it is not able to regain lost health: it will only slow down the development of the disease.
Known folk recipes should be used only as an adjunct to the main treatment prescribed by a doctor.
- taking decoctions of chamomile, calendula, birch buds, sage;
- use of alcoholic tinctures of St. John's wort and echinacea;
- wearing urological patches with herbal extracts;
- use of candles with candles of propolis, ichthyol or bokvica.
It is impractical to use folk remedies as the main treatment.
They will not be able to slow down the course of the disease or cure it, and precious time will already be lost.
Preventive measures are aimed at eliminating the factors that contribute to the development of prostatitis and the timely diagnosis of existing disease.
- strengthening the immune system;
- refusal of casual sex;
- timely treatment of infectious and sexually transmitted diseases;
- smoking cessation and excessive alcohol consumption;
- healthy food, exclusion from the diet of spicy and smoked foods, carbonated beverages, energy drinks;
- fight against stress;
- avoiding hypothermia and overheating;
- wearing loose underwear made of natural materials;
- regular sports, exercise therapy (running, walking, abdominal exercises, squats, "birch"), long walks.
A good sex life is important for the prevention of prostatitis. Phenomena such as artificially prolonged or interrupted sexual intercourse, repeated sexual intercourse are completely unacceptable.
Sex life should be regular: prolonged abstinence is unacceptable, as well as sexual arousal that does not end with ejaculation.
Also, every man should undergo a routine examination by a urologist every six months. The doctor will notice the signs of the initial disease and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Prostatitis is much easier to cure in the initial stages than a chronic disease.